Polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models

Species tree inference with allele frequency data in RevBayes

Rui Borges, Bastien Boussau, Sebastian Höhna and Carolin Kosiol

Last modified on May 4, 2021

This tutorial comes with a recorded video walkthrough. The video corresponding to each section of the exercise is linked next to the section title. The full playlist is available here: Walkthrough playlist

Polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models Walkthrough video

The polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models (PoMos) are alternative approaches of species tree estimation (De Maio et al. 2013) that add a new layer of complexity to the standard substitution models by accounting for population-level forces to describe the process of sequence evolution (De Maio et al. 2015; Schrempf et al. 2016; Borges et al. 2019). PoMos model the evolution of a population of individuals in which changes in allele content (e.g., due to mutations) and frequency (e.g., due to genetic drift or selection) are both possible ().

PoMoTwo and Three state-spaces. The tetrahedron represents the PoMos state-space for the four-allelic case (A, C, G and T). The fixed sites \(\{Na_i\}\) are represented in the vertices of the tetrahedron, while the polymorphic states \(\{na_i,(N −n)a_j\}\) are represented in its edges. Black and grey arrows respectively distinguish mutations from frequency shifts (i.e., due to genetic drift and selection).

PoMos stand out from the standard models of evolution and other species tree methods because they:

Overall, PoMos constitute a full-likelihood yet computationally efficient approach to species tree inference. PoMos are designed to cope with recent radiations, including incomplete lineage sorting, and long divergence times.

Polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models: the model Walkthrough video

PoMos model the evolution of a population of $N$ individuals and $K$ alleles in which changes in the allele content and frequency occur. These are mediated by population forces, such as mutation, genetic drift, and selection. The PoMo state-space includes fixed (or boundary) states \(\{Na_i\}\), in which all $N$ individuals have the same allele \(i \in \{0,1,...,K-1\}\), and polymorphic states \(\{na_i,(N-n)a_j\}\), in which two alleles $a_i$ and $a_j$ are present in the population with absolute frequencies $n$ and $N-n$.

Like the standard substitution models, PoMos are continuous-time Markov models and are fully characterized by their rate matrices. The rates in \ref{equation1} and \ref{equation2} define the PoMos rate matrices. RevBayes includes a plethora of PoMo rate matrices that permit modeling population dynamics with any number of alleles, reversible mutations (i.e., $\mu_{a_ia_j}=\rho_{a_ia_j}\pi_{a_j}$) and selection. These are described in .

Specific functions for PoMos available in RevBayes.
Function Description Parameters
fnPoMoKN Describes the evolution of a population with $K$ alleles and $N$ individuals and subjected to mutational bias and selection $K$, $N$, $\mu$, $\phi$
fnReversiblePoMoKN Particular case of PoMoKN when mutations are considered reversible. $K$, $N$, $\pi$, $\rho$, $\phi$
fnPoMo4N Describes the evolution of a population with 4 alleles (typically the A, C, G, and T nucleotides) and $N$ individuals and subjected to mutational bias and selection $N$, $\mu$, $\phi$
fnReversiblePoMo4N Particular case of PoMo4N when mutations are considered reversible. $N$, $\pi$, $\rho$, $\phi$
fnPoMo2N Describes the evolution of a population with 2 alleles and $N$ individuals and subjected to mutational bias and selection $N$, $\mu$, $\phi$
fnReversiblePoMo2N Particular case of PoMo2N when mutations are considered reversible. $N$, $\pi$, $\rho$, $\phi$
fnReversiblePoMoTwo4N Describes the evolution of a virtual population with 4 alleles of 2 individuals (hence PoMoTwo) and subjected to mutational bias $N$, $\pi$, $\rho$
fnReversiblePoMoThree4N Describes the evolution of a virtual population with 4 alleles of 3 individuals (hence PoMoThree) and subjected to mutational bias and selection $N$, $\pi$, $\rho$, $\phi$

This tutorial demonstrates how to set up and perform analyses using the polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models. You will perform phylogeny inference under the virtual PoMos Two and Three. These models allow for very efficient species tree inferences under neutrality (PoMoTwo) and selection (PoMoThree) because they operate on a smaller state space (Borges et al. 2020). You will perform a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis to estimate phylogeny and other model parameters. The graphical model representation under PoMoThree is depicted in figure .

Graphical model representation of PoMos. The graphical model shows the dependencies among parameters (Höhna et al. 2014). Here, the rate matrix $Q$ is a deterministic variable because it depends on the mutation rates and fitness coefficients. The same applies to the phylogenetic tree $\Psi$, which depends on the topology and branch lengths.

Count files Walkthrough video

PoMos perform inferences based on allele frequency data. Count files are the files where we store such data. They contain two header lines. The first line indicates the number of taxa and the number of sites (or loci) in the sequence alignment. You might have noticed that NPOP stands for the number of populations, but this is not necessarily the case. PoMos can be employed to infer the evolutionary history of different species or even other systematic units that one might be interested in studying (e.g., subspecies, communities, etc.).

A second line states the genomic position of every locus (chromosome and location) and the taxa names. The first two columns are not used for inference, which means that if you are working with taxa for which such information is not available, you can input these columns with dummy values (e.g., NA). All the other lines in the count file include allelic counts separated by commas. White spaces separate all the elements in the count file. Let us have a look at some lines of the great ape count file we will analyze in this tutorial:

CHROM POS       Gorilla_beringei_graueri Gorilla_gorilla_dielhi Gorilla_gorilla_gorilla
chr1  41275799  6,0,0,0                  2,0,0,0                54,0,0,0 
chr2  120104878 6,0,0,0                  2,0,0,0                54,0,0,0 
chr11 61364549  0,6,0,0                  0,2,0,0                0,54,0,0 
chr17 44837427  6,0,0,0                  2,0,0,0                54,0,0,0 
chr19 7495905   4,0,2,0                  2,0,0,0                10,0,44,0 

The four allelic counts in this count files represent the allelic counts of the A, C, G, and T, respectively. Thus, we know that the Gorilla_gorilla_gorilla has an AG polymorphism at position 7 495 905 of chromosome 19. The allele order in the allelic counts can be any. However, you have to keep in mind that the vector of mutation rates, exchangeabilities, base frequencies, and fitness coefficients all follow the allele counts order.

Loading the data Walkthrough video

The first step in this tutorial is to convert the allelic counts into PoMo states. Open the terminal and place it on your working directory PoMos (you can choose a name of your preference). Inside PoMos create the usual data and output folders.

We mentioned previously that the PoMo state-space includes fixed and polymorphic states. However, sampled fixed sites might not be necessarily fixed in the original population. We might just have been unlucky and only sampled individuals with the same allele from a locus that is polymorphic. It is typically the case that the real genetic diversity is undersampled in population genetic studies. The fewer the number of sampled individuals or the rarer are the alleles in the original population (i.e., singletons, doubletons), the more likely are we to observe fake fixed sites in the sequence alignment. The sampled-weighted method helps us to correct for such bias by attributing to each of the allelic counts an appropriate PoMo state (0-based coding). For a population size of 3 virtual individuals, we expect 16 states (coded 0-15), while for a population of 2 virtual individuals, we expected 10 states (coded 0-9).

The script weighted_sampled_method.cpp is implemented in C++, and we will run it using the Rcpp package in R. Open the counts_to_pomo_states_converter.R file and make the appropriate changes to obtain your PoMo alignments suited for PoMoTwo and PoMoThree. As we will be using the virtual PoMos Two and Three, the virtual population sizes are 2 and 3.

count_file <- "count_file.txt"     # count file
n_alleles  <- 4                    # the four nucleotide bases A, C, G and T
N          <- 10                   # virtual population size

alignment <- counts_to_pomo_states_converter(count_file,n_alleles,N)

Place the produced alignments inside the data folder. The output files follow the NaturalNumbers character type of RevBayes and can easily read by it.

Run RevBayes by typing ./rb (or ./rb-mpi) in the console. Open the great_apes_pomothree.Rev file using an appropriate text editor. First load in the PoMo alignment using the readCharacterDataDelimited function. This function requires you to input the number of expected states: 10 for PoMoTwo and 16 for PoMoThree.

data <- readCharacterDataDelimited("data/great_apes_pomothree_naturalnumbers.txt", stateLabels=16, type="NaturalNumbers", delimiter=" ", headers=FALSE)

Information about the alignment can be obtained by typing data.

NaturalNumbers character matrix with 12 taxa and 1000 characters
Number of taxa:                12
Number of included taxa:       12
Number of characters:          1000
Number of included characters: 1000
Datatype:                      NaturalNumbers

Next, we will specify some useful variables based on our dataset. These include the number of taxa, taxa names, and the number of branches. We will need that information for setting up our model in subsequent steps.

n_taxa     <- data.ntaxa()
n_branches <- 2*n_taxa-3
taxa       <- data.taxa()

Additionally, we set up a variable that holds all the moves and monitors for our analysis. Recall that moves are algorithms used to propose new parameter values during the MCMC simulation. Monitors print the values of model parameters to the screen and/or log files during the MCMC analysis.

moves    = VectorMoves()  
monitors = VectorMonitors()

Setting up the model Walkthrough video

Estimating an unrooted tree under the virtual PoMos requires specifying two main components:

A given PoMo model is defined by its corresponding instantaneous-rate matrix Q. PoMoTwo and PoMoThree have three free parameters in common: the population size N, the allele frequencies pi, and the exchangeabilities rho. PoMoThree additionally includes the allele fitnesses phi, as it accounts for selection. We will set up the virtual PoMoTwo and Three using the function fnReversiblePoMo4N. You can check the input parameters of any PoMo function by typing its name right after the question mark symbol ?fnReversiblePoMo4N.

As expected, this function has as inputs parameters the population size N, base frequencies, exchangeabilities rho and fitnesses phi. We will first set out the PoMoThree, which we can do by setting $N$ to 3. Similarly, if you wanted to set out the neutral PoMo (i.e., PoMoTwo), you can set N to 2 instead. Thus, N is a fixed node:

# virtual population size
N <- 3

Since pi, rho, and gamma are stochastic variables, we need to specify a move to propose updates to them. A good move on variables drawn from a Dirichlet distribution (i.e., pi) is the mvBetaSimplex. This move randomly takes an element from the allele frequencies vector pi, proposes a new value for it drawn from a Beta distribution, and then rescales all values to sum to 1 again. The weight option inside the moves specifies how often the move will be applied either on average per iteration or relative to all other moves.

# allele frequencies
pi_prior <- [1,1,1,1]
pi ~ dnDirichlet(pi_prior)
moves.append( mvBetaSimplex(pi, weight=2) )

The rho and phi parameters must be a positive real number and a natural choice as the prior distribution is the exponential one. Again, we need to specify a move for these stochastic variables, and a simple scaling move mvScale typically works. In this tutorial, we want our model to capture the effect of GC-bias gene conversion. For that, we define gamma, which represents the GC-bias rate. The allele fitnesses phi of G and C will thus be represented by gamma, while those of A and T by 1.0. Note that phi is a deterministic node that depends on the GC-bias rate gamma.

# exchangeabilities
for (i in 1:6){
  rho[i] ~ dnExponential(10.0)
  moves.append(mvScale( rho[i], weight=2 ))

# fitness coefficients
gamma ~ dnExponential(1.0)
moves.append(mvScale( gamma, weight=2 ))
phi := [1.0,1.0+gamma,1.0+gamma,1.0]

The function fnReversiblePoMo4N will create an instantaneous-rate matrix.

# rate matrix
Q := fnReversiblePoMo4N(N,pi,rho,phi)

We could similarly have used the functions fnReversiblePoMoTwo4N and fnReversiblePoMoThree4N, to set the rate-matrices. These are particularly useful when one has information about the mutation rates and bias or the GC-bias gene conversion rate (for some model organisms, this information is available) and wants to include it via informative priors. In that case, the population size is not a fixed node, and it can be jointly estimated. In this tutorial, we are assuming that no prior information is available for the mutation or GC-bias rates. Note that selection is not identifiable with two virtual individuals, so the vector of fitness coefficients can not be inputted for the fnReversiblePoMoTwo4N: it is by default equal to the unitary vector (i.e., the neutral scenario). To check the input parameters of PoMoTwo type ?fnReversiblePoMoTwo4N at the terminal; you will see that the fitness coefficient phi is missing. Thus, if we want to employ the PoMoTwo model with the general fnReversiblePoMoTwo4N, we have to set the fitness coefficients to 1.0.

The tree topology and branch lengths are stochastic nodes in our phylogenetic model. We will assume that all possible labeled, unrooted tree topologies have equal probability. In the case an unrooted tree topology, we use a nearest-neighbor interchange move mvNNI (a subtree-prune and regrafting move mvSPR could also be used).

# topology
topology ~ dnUniformTopology(taxa)
moves.append( mvNNI(topology, weight=2*n_taxa) )

Next, we have to create a stochastic node representing the length of each of the 2*n_taxa−3 branches in our tree. We can do this using a for loop. In this loop, we can create each of the branch-length nodes and assign each move.

# branch lengths
for (i in 1:n_branches) {
   branch_lengths[i] ~ dnExponential(10.0)
   moves.append( mvScale(branch_lengths[i]) )

Finally, we combine the tree topology and branch lengths. We do this using the treeAssembly function, which applies the value of the ith member of the branch_lengths vector to the branch leading to the ith node in the topology. Thus, the psi variable is a deterministic node:

psi := treeAssembly(topology, branch_lengths)

We have fully specified all of the parameters of our phylogenetic model:

Collectively, these parameters comprise a distribution called the phylogenetic continuous-time Markov chain, and we use the dnPhyloCTMC function to create this node. This distribution requires several input arguments:

sequences ~ dnPhyloCTMC(psi,Q=Q,type="NaturalNumbers")

Once the PhyloCTMC model has been created, we can attach our sequence data to the tip nodes in the tree. Although we assume that our sequence data are random variables, they are realizations of our phylogenetic model. For inference purposes, we assume that the sequence data are clamped to their observed values.


When this function is called, RevBayes sets each of the stochastic nodes representing the tree’s tips to the corresponding nucleotide sequence in the alignment. This essentially tells the program that we have observed data for the sequences at the tips.

Finally, we wrap the entire model in a single object. To do this, we only need to give the model function a single node.

pomo_model = model(pi)

Setting, running, and summarizing the MCMC simulation Walkthrough video

For our MCMC analysis, we need to set up a vector of monitors to record the states of our Markov chain. First, we will initialize the model monitor using the mnModel function. This creates a new monitor variable that will output the states for all model parameters when passed into an MCMC function. We will sample every 10th iterate, and the resulting file can be found in the output folder.

monitors.append( mnModel(filename="output/great_apes_pomothree.log", printgen=10) )

The mnFile monitor will record the states for only the parameters passed in as arguments. We use this monitor to specify the output for our sampled trees and branch lengths. Again, we sample every 10th iterate.

monitors.append( mnFile(filename="output/great_apes_pomothree.trees", printgen=10, psi) )

Finally, create a screen monitor that will report the states of specified variables to the screen with mnScreen. This monitor mostly helps us to see the progress of the MCMC run.

monitors.append( mnScreen(printgen=10) )

With a fully specified model, a set of monitors, and a set of moves, we can now set up the MCMC algorithm that will sample parameter values in proportion to their posterior probability. The mcmc function will create our MCMC object. Furthermore, we will perform two independent MCMC runs to ensure proper convergence and mixing.

pomo_mcmc = mcmc(pomo_model, monitors, moves, nruns=2, combine="mixed")

Now, run the MCMC.

pomo_mcmc.run( generations=10000 )

When the analysis is complete, you will have the monitored files in your output directory. Programs like Tracer allow evaluating convergence and mixing. Look at the file called output/great_apes_pomothree.log in Tracer. There you see the posterior distribution of the continuous parameters. Let us look at the posterior distribution of the GC-bias rate $\gamma$. Is there any evidence of GC-bias in these great apes sequences?

Left: Trace of the GC-bias rate ($\gamma$) samples for one MCMC run. You will also see that the effective sample size is comparably large, i.e., much larger than 200. Right: Posterior distribution of the great apes GC-bias rate ($\gamma$) under a PoMoThree model.

Apart from the continuous parameters, we need to summarize the trees sampled from the posterior distribution. RevBayes can summarize the sampled trees by reading in the tree-trace file:

trace = readTreeTrace("output/great_apes_pomothree.trees", treetype="non-clock", burnin= 0.2)

The mapTree function will summarize the tree samples and write the maximum a posteriori (MAP) tree to the specified file. The MAP tree can be found in the output folder.

mapTree(trace, file="output/great_apes_pomothree_MAP.tree" )

Maximum a posteriori estimate of the great ape phylogeny under the PoMoThree model. The numbers at the nodes show the posterior probabilities for the clades. We have rooted the tree at the Oran-Utans clade.

Look at the file called output/great_apes_pomothree_MAP.tree and open it in FigTree. The maximum a posteriori estimate of the great ape phylogeny under the PoMoThree model should look like that of .

Some questions

  1. What is the GC-bias rate (this is the selection coefficient) for the great ape populations? Rescale to its real value by assuming that the great apes have an effective population size of about 10 000 individuals. Hint: You can use the relation $(1+\gamma’)^{M-1}=(1+\gamma)^{N-1}$ to rescale $\gamma$. $M$ and $N$ are the virtual and the effective population sizes, and $\gamma’$ and $\gamma$ are the GC-bias rates on the virtual and effective populations.

  2. With as your guide, draw the probabilistic graphical model of the PoMoTwo model.

  3. What changes have to be done to the great_apes_pomothree.Rev to make inferences under the PoMoTwo model?

  4. Run an MCMC analysis to estimate the posterior distribution under the PoMoTwo model. Are the resulting estimates of the mutation rates (base frequencies and exchangeabilities) equal? If not, how much do they differ?

  5. Compare the MAP trees estimated under PoMoTwo and PoMoThree. Are they equal, and if not, how much do they differ?

  1. Borges R., Boussau B., Szöllősi G.J., Kosiol C. 2020. Pervasive selection biases inferences of the species tree. bioRxiv. 10.1101/2020.07.30.228965
  2. Borges R., Szöllősi G.J., Kosiol C. 2019. Quantifying GC-Biased Gene Conversion in Great Ape Genomes Using Polymorphism-Aware Models. Genetics. 212:1321–1336. 10.1534/genetics.119.302074
  3. Höhna S., Heath T.A., Boussau B., Landis M.J., Ronquist F., Huelsenbeck J.P. 2014. Probabilistic Graphical Model Representation in Phylogenetics. Systematic Biology. 63:753–771. 10.1093/sysbio/syu039
  4. Schrempf D., Minh B.Q., De Maio N., Haeseler A. von, Kosiol C. 2016. Reversible polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models and their application to tree inference. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 407:362–370. 10.1016/j.jtbi.2016.07.042
  5. De Maio N., Schlötterer C., Kosiol C. 2013. Linking great apes genome evolution across time scales using polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models. 30:2249–2262. 10.1093/molbev/mst131
  6. De Maio N., Schrempf D., Kosiol C. 2015. PoMo: An Allele Frequency-Based Approach for Species Tree Estimation. Systematic Biology. 64:1018–1031. 10.1093/sysbio/syv048